Standard 9. Human and Environmental Interactions: Resources, Hazards, and Health

Students examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with examples of how humans interact with the environment, such as deforestation, natural hazards and the spread of diseases, and the regional and global consequences of these interactions.

9.1 Use maps to identify regions in the world where particular natural disasters occur frequently and analyze how the physical and human environments have been modified over time in response to environmental threats. Assess the success of international aid to these disasters.

9.2 Identify regional resource issues that may impede sustainability, economic expansion and/or diversification and assess the impact of these issues on the physical and human environments of specific regions. Examples: United States: distribution of fresh water in western states; African Sahel: overgrazing
vegetation, compounding effects of drought and consequent desertification; Europe:
dependence on the Persian Gulf for fossil energy.

9.3 Identify and describe ways in which humans have used technology to modify the physical environment in order to settle areas in different world regions and evaluate the impact of these technologies on the physical and human environments affected. Examples: Netherlands: use of dams and dikes; United States (New Orleans): levees and dams; China: Three Gorges Dam on Yangtze River (Chang Jiang); Southwest Asia (Qatar and United Arab Emirates): changing the desert into areas of agriculture productivity and developing urban centers

9.4 Distinguish and assess the human and physical factors associated with the spread of selected epidemics and/or pandemics over time. Examples: Bubonic Plague, smallpox, cholera pandemic, Influenza pandemic, and describe the impact of this diffusion on countries and regions. Propose strategies for limiting the spread of diseases.

Sustainability—Meeting the needs of the present population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Diversification—Methods of farming, other forms of land use, industrial production, and economic systems that involve more than one product, following the old maxim, “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.”