Standard 5. Urban Growth

Students examine the physical and human geographic factors associated with the origin and growth of towns and cities in different regions of the world and with the internal spatial structure of those urban centers.

5.1 Ask and answer geographic and historic questions about the origin and growth of towns and cities in different regions of the world and in different time periods. Compare and contrast the factors involved in the location and growth of towns and cities for different time periods.

5.2 Describe, using a variety of text (writing, maps, timelines and/or other graphic presentations), the worldwide trend toward urbanization and the changing function of cities. Assess the impact of factors such as locational advantages and disadvantages, changing transportation technologies, population growth, changing agricultural production, and the demands of industry on this trend. Examples: Latin America: compare and contrast the urban centers of Mexico, Brazil and Peru (1800–present); New Orleans: growth as gateway to the heartland of the United States (1803–present); Tokyo: from semi-isolation to widespread international interaction (1853–present)

5.3 Describe how the internal structure of cities is similar and different in various regions of the world. Analyze and explain why these similarities and differences in structure exist. Examples: Examine similarities and differences among the urban development of Salt Lake City (central temple focus), Paris (circular with spokes), Rio de Janeiro (physical geographic constraints of sea and mountains), and Mumbai (peninsular location)

5.4 Analyze and assess the impact of urbanization on the physical and human environments in various parts of the world.

Urbanization—The process involving the movement to, and the clustering of, people in towns and cities. Urbanization refers to the proportion of a country’s population living in urban places.