Standard 10. States, Nations, and Nation-States

Students analyze and evaluate the physical and human geographic factors that contribute to the formation of states (countries) and the forces that function to either unite and bind a country together or to divide a country.

10.1 Differentiate between a state (country) and a nation, specifically focusing on the concepts of territorial control and self-determination of internal and foreign affairs and analyze the relationship between nations and the states in which they lie. Examples: Iraq and Kurdistan (1930–present), China and Tibet (1949–present), and Spain and the Basque (1492–present)

10.2 Analyze the formation of states (countries) in selected regions and identify and appraise the contribution of factors, such as nationalism, in their formation. Examples: The development of the United States from the 13 colonies (1763–1825), the development of the countries of Columbia and Venezuela from the Viceroyalty of New Granada (1775–1825), the formation of Germany (1848–1989), the formation of the Republic of China on Taiwan (1945–present), potential nationalistic movements with the Palestinians and Kurds (present)

10.3 Evaluate and predict the successes and failures of democratic reform movements in challenging authoritarian or despotic regimes in different countries. Examples: Brazil: formation (1820–1875), Russia: from Czar to federalism (1905–1995), the future of Iraq (1945–present), Korea (1945–present), South Africa: from white supremacy to black majority rule with protection of the rights of minorities (1900s), Nigeria: from dictatorship to democracy (1960–present)

10.4 Investigate and assess the impact of imperialistic policies on the formation of new countries in various regions of the world. Examples: The Netherlands and Indonesia (1750–1945), Great Britain and Kenya (1870–1970), Belgium and the Congo (1870–1970), France and Indo-China (1890–1954), United States and the Philippines (1898–1947), Portugal and Angola (1925–1975), and Japan and Korea (1910–1945)

10.5 Use a variety of sources, such as atlases, written materials and statistical source materials, to identifycountries of the world that are true nation-states and draw conclusions about why certain regions of the world contain more nation-states than others. Examples: The development of France (500–1850), compare Europe with Africa (1700–1990), the emergence of the federal state of Australia (1775–1925) and the increase of homogeneity in Japan (1945–present)

10.6 Analyze the human and physical geographic forces that either bind and unite (centripetal forces) or divide (centrifugal forces) a country or countries. Predict the impact of these forces on the future of these countries and analyze possible strategies that could be implemented to overcome the impact of centrifugal forces. Examples: Switzerland and Yugoslavia (1200–present); the emergence of countries in the Indian sub-continent (1775–1985); the road to federalism in Nigeria (1925–present); and the evolution
of countries of contemporary Europe, such as Great Britain, France, Spain and Italy

State—A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community. A state must also contain a permanent resident population, an economy, and be self-governing within a defined territory.

Nation—A group of people generally linked by language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes including a common cultural consciousness. Such homogeneity does not occur in all states, and a nation may not necessarily enjoy statehood.

Nation-state—A state (country) whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity and is recognized as a political unit. The territory of a nation-state usually coincides with the area settled by a certain national group or people.

Country—Synonymous with the term state.

Self-Determination—The principle that a people should be free to determine their own political status.

Nationalism—The belief that groups of people are bound together by territorial, cultural and (sometimes) ethnic links.

Centripetal forces—Forces that unite and bind a country together—such as a strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith.

Centrifugal forces—A term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a country—such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.